What is Software Testing? Ultimate Guide for Beginners

What is Software Testing?

Software Testing is a process used to measure the quality of a product or software. This process is used to check whether the actual results meet the expected results and the particular software is bug-free.

During this process, a software component is evaluated and tested for bugs. Software QA can be done both manually and using automation tools.

The testing approach is categorized into Black box testing and White box testing. Black box testing is an approach used to test the software without any knowledge of the program or internal structure of the code.

While White box testing is an approach where the software is tested by a tester who knows the internal code of the software being tested.

Before going into detail in software testing, we need to understand the difference between Errors, Bugs and Defects.

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Error is a difference between the actual and the expected results. It signifies the mistakes made by developers.

Bug is an error identified within the application before it goes into production. It is a programming error that produces incorrect results and causes the program to crash.

The error identified during the testing process is usually logged in as a Defect.

Why Software Testing?

Let’s take the example of an e-commerce Application where the user tries to buy an item from the website.

He adds an item into his cart and pays for it. Only later, he realizes that he was charged twice for an item.

Nobody wants to be in such situations. Neither the user nor the organization. This might be a very lame example.

However, the point here is the quality of the product is directly proportional to the reputation of the organization.

Let’s take some real examples. In 2014, due to a technical glitch, thousands of shopping items were listed for 1 pence in Amazon during the Christmas shopping season.

Resulting in lots of small business owners in shock and losses.

This is a perfect example of why software testing is essential for the business. 

Software Testing or QA Services is crucial because it will identify the errors/bugs from a system at the beginning.

By identifying the problem at the early stages will help in improving the quality of the product.

What is the Objective of Software Testing?

The ultimate objective is to ensure the final product is without any bugs, defects and errors.

The objectives of software testing vary based on the product or software that is being tested.

It also varies based on the project requirements. However, there are few common objectives of software testing such as,

  • To fulfill the requirements of the customer.
  • To identify defects that are created during the development of the product.
  • To match the requirements of the software product given for testing.
  • Perform effective tests by generating high-quality test cases.
  • To provide a high-quality software or product to the end user

Importance of Software Testing

As human beings, we are prone to errors. Some of these errors are not very impactful.

While some errors may affect the reputation of the organization, similar to the example of Amazon mentioned above.

In such situations, it is better to identify the errors before the launch of the software. Hence, software testing plays a vital role in the success of a product or software.

  • It is not possible to develop a software without errors/bugs, hence testing of the application is crucial.
  • In today’s competitive market, only quality products survive. To make sure the product is of good quality, software testing is necessary.
  • Software testing is crucial in identifying the errors and defects that were created during the software development.
  • It is important as it creates a trust amongst the customers with their application.
  • Software Testing is essential to check the performance of the software.
  • Testing is required to make sure the application is not resulting in any failures, as it may be expensive in the later stages of product development.

Software Testing Types

Functional Testing

  1. Unit Testing
  2. Integration Testing
  3. Smoke testing
  4. System testing
  5. Sanity testing
  6. UAT ( User Acceptance Testing)
  7. Interface testing
  8. Regression testing
  9. Interoperability testing

Non-functional Testing

  1. Performance testing
  2. Endurance testing
  3. Load testing
  4. Volume testing
  5. Stress testing
  6. Security testing
  7. Usability testing
  8. Compliance testing
  9. Compatibility testing


Now that we know the necessity and importance of software testing, it is equally important to know which type of testing will be appropriate and when to implement it. It is best to include Software Testing in the early stages of the Software Development Life Cycle. 

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Since the cost of fixing, a bug at the early stage is much cheaper than fixing the bugs after the completion of the product.

Author: Pradeep Parthiban
Pradeep is a Content Writer and Digital Marketing Specialist at Indium Software with a demonstrated history of working in the information technology and services industry.